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Dengan siapa kamu duduk

Sekadar renungan …

Barangsiapa yang duduk dengan lapan macam manusia akan ditambah Allah baginya lapan corak hidup:

1. Barangsiapa suka duduk berserta orang kaya, Akan ditambah Allah kecintaannya kepada dunia dan keinginan kepadanya.
2. Barangsiapa suka duduk berserta orang miskin, Akan dijadikan Allah baginya kesukaan bersyukur dan redha menerima pembahagian yang ditentukan Allah.
3. Barangsiapa suka duduk dengan Sultan (Pemerintah Negara), akan ditambah Allah kasarnya dan sombongnya.
4. Barangsiapa suka duduk dengan perempuan, (bukan muhrim) akan ditambah Allah bodohnya dan syahwatnya.
5. Barangsiapa suka duduk bersama kanak-kanak, akan ditambah kesukaannya bermain-main dan bersenda gurau.
6. Barangsiapa suka duduk dengan orang fasiq, akan bertambahlah beraninya berbuat dosa dan menunda-nunda taubat.
7. Barangsiapa suka duduk dengan orang-orang soleh, akan bertambahlah keinginannya untuk taat.
8. Barangsiapa suka duduk dengan para ulama’ maka bertambahlah ilmu dan waraknya

DOA seorang AYAH dan SUAMI



Wahai Tuhan kami, jadikanlah kami beroleh dari isteri-isteri serta zuriat keturunan kami, perkara-perkara yang menjadi penyejuk mata (menenangkan hati), serta jadikanlah kami sebagai Imam bagi orang-orang yang bertaqwa”

Principles of Human Development Derivable from the Qur’an and Hadith

 In the opening chapter of the Qur’an, the Fatihah, God declares that He is the Lord and Cherisher of the worlds: All praises are due to Allah, Lord of the worlds. (1:2) What this means is that He is the sole creator of the universe and that He nourishes and sustains it. The implication is that He is the originator of everything (seen and unseen, known and unknown) and that everything depends on Him for sustenance, growth, and development. This interpretation is conveyed in the following verse of the Qur’an: God is the creator of all things, and He is the guardian and disposer of all affairs. (39:62) These verses provide the background for our discussion on aspects and principles of human development in the Qur’an, particularly cognitive development. In fact, as far as the Qur’an is concerned, the meaning of these two verses is the fundamental principle of human development. So, God is the creator of man, and He is the sole determinant of the pattern and process of his growth and development. The following paragraphs enunciate this dominant principle in forms of subprinciples of human development. In the Islamic perspective of developmental psychology, the following principles are identifiable. Human Life (Growth and Development) Is a Gradual ProcessThis is the first principle of development that can be derived from the Qur’an. Having told us that He is the creator, guardian, and disposer of all things, God also told us that He created man in various progressive stages of growth and development. In other words, man’s life has been patterned in stages from conception to death. The stages through which man passes in his growth and development are not merely a matter of chance or accident. They were predesigned, predetermined, and graduated by God Himself. God mentions this basic fact in a number of verses in the Qur’an. Examples of such verses are the following: It is He Who created all things and ordered them in due proportions. (25:2) This verse clearly spells out the fact that the life of every thing has been designed in such a way that every aspect of it is proportionately graduated. In the case of human growth and development it means that the various phases mentioned above have been duly proportioned and all humans have to pass through each stage up to old age and death. That growth and development do not take place at once but pass through the duly and proportionately designed phases is what makes them a gradual process. The following verse clearly mentions that we have been created and caused to grow in phases, not at once: What is the matter with you, that you place not your hope for kindness and long suffering in God? Seeing that it is He that has created you in diverse stages? (71:13-14) Ibn Kathir reported that Abdullah ibn Abbas (hereinafter referred to as Ibn Abbas) and others interpreted this verse to mean that man has been created from a drop of sperm, then transformed into a clot of blood, then into a morsel of flesh, and so on. Allah says in the Qur’an: You shall surely travel from stage to stage. (84:19) Ibn Kathir again reported that ‘Ikrimah (one of the disciples of Ibn Abbas) interpreted this verse to mean that man shall grow from one condition to the other such that he becomes a toddler after being an infant, old after being young and strong. The above verses tell us in general terms that man’s growth and development definitely follow certain stages. These stages are specifically spelled out in some other verses in the Qur’an in more elaborate and particular terms. The Prophet himself enunciated and expounded them in more detail in some of his traditions. These will be seen in our subsequent discussions. It is however important to note that the phases through which growth and development pass are themselves spread over two broad stages. Human life (growth and development) has been categorized in the Qur’an into two broad phases: the prenatal and the postnatal. Each of these phases has been subdivided into different substages having different terms and periods. The following Qur’anic verse succinctly describes the first phase of human life: He makes you in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness. Such is God, your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion. There is no god but He: then how are you turned away (from your true center)? (39:6) In another verse, the Qur’an describes the two phases in a precise and concise manner: It is He Who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a leech-like clot; then does He get you out (into the light) as a child; then lets you (grow and) reach your age of full strength, then lets you become old-though of you there are some who die before-and lets you reach a term appointed; in order that you may learn wisdom. (40:67) The Qur’an has also told us that the first phase has a certain fixed and definite term within which it reaches its apex of development. Then it is terminated through birth (by delivery). The Qur’an says: And We cause Whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term. (22:5) But in much more elaborate, precise, and detailed terms the following verse further describes these two broad stages with their respective specific phases. It reads thus: O mankind! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then verily, We have created you (i.e. Adam) from dust, then from a nutfah (mixed drops of male and female sexual discharges), then from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood) then from a little lump of flesh – partly formed and partly unformed – that We make it clear to you (i.e. to show you our Power and ability to do what We Will). And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, then We bring you out as infants, then (give you growth) that you may reach your age of full strength. And among you there is he who dies (young), and among you there is he who is brought back to the miserable old age, so that he knows nothing after having known. (22:5) The Prophet (S.A.W.) has precisely and accurately described the first broad stage with fixed time specifications stipulated for each of the phases within it. The hadith reads thus: Lo! The creation of each one of you is composed in the womb of his mother (first) as a nutfah (mixed drop of sperm and ovum) for forty days then after that he transforms to alaqah (a clot of congealed blood) for a similar term, then he transforms to mudghah (a lump of flesh), and then an Angel is sent to blow the spirit into him.18 The Qur’an has also told us that the first broad stage (prenatal) has a certain fixed and definite term within which it reaches its apex of development. Then it is terminated through birth. Allah says: And We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term. (22:5) Therefore, the Qur’an has established that the prenatal period is definite and fixed (usually 9 months under normal circumstances as enunciated in one of the Prophetic traditions) and as experienced practically in daily life. However, the Qur’an further mentions to us that there are exceptional cases whereby the prenatal period terminates, before or after the normal term. And all these happen in accordance with God’s Absolute Will and Decree. The Qur’an says: He it is that fashions (shapes) you in the wombs as He pleases. There is no god save He, the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (2:6) This means that the nature, form, size, and time in which individuals are created and shaped in the womb may vary according to the will and wishes of God. Because of this, He affirms that some pregnancies may be delivered before or after the normal time of delivery. But the knowledge of that (addition or reduction in time) is His exclusive preserve: God doth know what every female (womb) doth bear, by how much the wombs fall short (of their time or number) or do exceed. Every single thing is before His sight, in (due) proportion. He knoweth the unseen and that which is open: He is the Great, the Most High. (13:8-9) As for the postnatal phase of growth and development, the Qur’an does not mention any fixed span of life that is generally applicable to all individuals; it differs from one individual to the other. That is why the Qur’an says: And some of you are called to die (at different ages) and some are sent to the feeblest old age. (22:6) But if the postnatal period is taken in its entirety, Islamic scholars have divided it into four broad stages, and each stage is itself divided into short substages. Allah says: It is God Who creates you and takes your souls at death; and of you there are some who are sent back to a feeble age, so that they know nothing after having known much. (16:70) In his commentary on this verse, Gummi (1922-1992) says the following: Some Islamic scholars have said that man’s life (after birth) has four broad stages. The first stage is the stage of continuous growth and development, which begins from 0 to 33 years (the end of youth and the age at which an individual attains full physical and intellectual maturity). The second stage, from 33 to 40, is the stage of constancy in which increase in growth and development is hardly noticeable. The age of 40 is usually considered the stage at which both physical and intellectual ability reach maturity. The third stage is the stage of mid- or proper adulthood (al-kuhulah). From 40 to 60 years man begins to decline physically and mentally though so subtly and steadily that it can hardly be noticed. The last stage, from 60 to the end of life, is the stage of old age and decline (senescence). In this stage decline becomes more obvious and noticeable.19 According to the Qur’an, human growth and development follow one common pattern which is applicable to every human being. Despite individual differences this pattern applies to every person. The pattern is that every individual grows and develops from initial weakness to strength and then to weakness. In other words, growth and development follow a certain natural inevitable law of rise and fall. That is to say that when the individual gradually reaches the apex of his development, whether physical or cognitive, he then begins to decline gradually. The Qur’an is very precise about this: It is God Who created you in a state of (helpless) weakness, then gave (you) strength after weakness, then, after strength, gave (you) weakness and a hoary head; He creates as He wills. And it is He Who has all knowledge and power. (30:54) It needs to be emphasized here that this single pattern mentioned in this principle and as demonstrated in this verse is applicable to all human beings. We are all created in a state of weakness. This refers to the early stage of our creation right inside the wombs and up to delivery. We are weak at these early stages both physically and mentally. This weakness at the onset of our life is also mentioned in another place (Surat al-Nahl) in the Qur’an but with specific reference to mental weaknesses: And Allah has brought you out from the wombs of your mothers while you know nothing. And He gave you hearing, sight, and hearts that you might give thanks (to Him). (16:78) In several other verses this single and common pattern of early weakness that first characterizes every person’s life and then strength in later development is also clearly indicated. For example: We have enjoined on kindness to his parents: In pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth. The carrying of the child (in the womb) to his weaving is (a period of) thirty months. At length when he reaches the age of full strength and attains forty years he says, O my Lord? Grant me that I may be grateful for thy favour, which Thou has bestowed upon me, and upon my parents.20 The necessary analogical deduction that can be made from this verse is that each person’s life begins in weakness, gradually attains strength, and then gradually declines, just as the first verse under this principle clearly states. The decline is the beginning of a second dimension of weakness that characterizes human life at the end of one’s life. And this has also been stated in this verse and several others. This pattern is certainly common to all human beings as it is witnessed in our life experiences. This principle, it should be noted, does not eliminate the fact of individual differences. What is actually meant is that, although this pattern is applicable to all humans, there are always a number of differences among individuals in terms of specific developmental variables and processes. For the purpose of illustration, let us assume that two identical things are born at the same moment. This principle applies to both of them in the sense that they are both helpless, weak, miniature human beings, and both gradually begin to grow and develop until both attain full strength. However, it may be noticed that one may be dark in complexion while another may be light. Again, while one may be fat, the other may be slim. These are some forms of individual differences. They do not however, like all other forms, eliminate the fact of the common pattern of development represented by this principle, just as the principle itself does not wipe away this very fact of individual differences. A more detailed discussion on individual differences in development comes later in this article.


4.5 Lupaan

Lupaan adalah keterbalikan daripada ingatan. Ia dikatakan sebagai kegagalan untuk

mengingat kembali sesuatu yang telah dialami atau dipelajari, sama ada untuk sementara

waktu mahupun untuk selama-lamanya.Terdapat tiga jenis lupaan iaitu lupaan gangguan,

lupaan keusangan atau pengaburan dan lupaan desakan emosi.

i) Lupaan Gangguan

Mengikut teori ini, lupaan adalah disebabkan oleh gangguan pengalaman atau

maklumat yang baru diterima memberi kesan kepada ingatan kekal. Contohnya seperti

pembelajaran perkara baru mungkin akan mengganggu pembelajaran lama Kandungan

perkara-perkara yang dipelajari telah bercampur menyebabkan lupaan berlaku terhadap

pembelajaran lama.

ii) Lupaan Keusangan atau pengaburan

Lupaan ini disebabkan oleh maklumat-maklumat pengalaman yang tersimpan

dalam ingatan jangka panjang menjadi kabur dan susah diingat kembali. Ia disebabkan

kerana maklumat pengalaman yang tersimpan itu telah lama tidak digunakan

menyebabkan ia menjadi kabur. Sesuatu pengetahuan yang diperolehi tetapi tidak sudah

lama tidak lebih berkemungkinan akan menyebabkan ia menjadi kabur dalam ingatan.

Misalnya, seseorang yang mempelajari bahasa kedua dan mahir. Disebabkan sudah lama

tidak menggunakan bahasa samada dalam pertuturan ataupun penulisan, dia mendapati

susah hendak mengingat kembali bahasa ini. Walau bagaimanapun, kemahiran

menggunakan bahasa ini dapat dipulihkan dengan cara mempelajari semula bahasa

tersebut. Pembelajaran kali kedua ini lebih cepat membawa kepada kemahiran daripada

pembelajaran kali pertama.

iii) Lupaan Desakan emosi

Lupaan jenis ini disebabkan oleh gangguan ke atas emosi orang yang hendak

mengingat, hingga mendesak ia untuk melupakan maklumat-maklumat pengalaman yang

tersimpan dalam ingatan jangka panjangnya. Dalam hidup manusia, mungkin terdapat

pengalaman-pengalaman yang menyakitkan emosi atau menyedihkan. Ada di antara

pengalaman-pengalaman ini tersimpan dalam ingatan jangka panjang tetapi individu

berkenaan sengaja ingin melupakan pengalaman tersebut untuk megelakkan kesedihan.



Ismail bin Marsyud bin Ibrahim Ar-Rumaih

Allah memberikan setiap waktu dengan keutamaan dan kemuliaan yang berbeza-beza, di antaranya ada waktu-waktu tertentu yang sangat baik untuk berdoa, akan tetapi kebanyakan orang mensia-siakan kesempatan yang baik tersebut. Mereka menyangka bahawa seluruh waktu memiliki nilai yang sama dan tidak berbeza. Setiap muslim seharusnya memanfaatkan waktu-waktu yang utama dan mulia untuk berdoa agar mendapatkan kejayaan, keuntungan, kemenangan dan keselamatan. Adapun waktu-waktu mustajaba tersebut antara lain ialah

(1). Sepertiga Akhir Malam

Dari Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawasanya Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Sesungguhnya Rabb kami yang Maha Berkah lagi Maha Tinggi turun setiap malam ke langit dunia hingga berbaki sepertiga akhir malam, lalu berfirman ; barangsiapa yang berdoa, maka Aku akan kabulkan, barangsiapa yang memohon, pasti Aku akan perkenankan dan barangsiapa yang meminta ampun, pasti Aku akan mengampuninya” . (Shahih Al-Bukhari, kitab Da’awaat bab Doa Nisfullail 7/149-150)

(2). Tatkala Berbuka Puasa Bagi Orang Yang Berpuasa

Dari Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin ‘Ash Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawa dia mendengar Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Sesungguhnya bagi orang yang berpuasa ketika saat berbuka ada doa yang tidak ditolak”. (Sunan Ibnu Majah, bab Fis Siyam La Turaddu Da’watuhu 1/321 No. 1775. Hakim dalam kitab Mustadrak 1/422. Dishahihkan sanadnya oleh Bushairi dalam Misbahuz Zujaj 2/17),

(3). Setiap Selepas Shalat Fardhu

Dari Abu Umamah, sesungguhnya Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam ditanya tentang doa yang paling didengari oleh Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, baginda Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam menjawab.

“Ertinya : Di pertengahan malam yang akhir dan setiap selesai shalat fardhu”.
(Sunan At-Tirmidzi, bab Jamiud Da’awaat 13/30. Dishahihkan oleh Al-Albani di dalam Shahih Sunan At-Tirmidzi 3/167-168 No. 2782).

(4). Ketika Saat Perang Berkecamuk

Dari Sahl bin Sa’ad Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa
sallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Ada dua doa yang tidak tertolak atau jarang tertolak ; doa ketika saat adzan dan doa ketika perang berkecamuk”. (Sunan Abu Daud, kitab Jihad 3/21 No. 2540. Sunan Baihaqi, bab Shalat Istisqa’ 3/360. Hakim dalam Mustadrak 1/189. Dishahihkan Imam Nawawi dalam Al-Adzkaar hal. 341. Dan Al-Albani dalam Ta’liq Alal Misykat 1/212 No. 672).

(5). Sesaat ketika Hari Jum’at

Dari Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawa Abul Qasim Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Sesungguhnya pada hari Jum’at ada satu saat yang tidaklah bertepatan
seorang hamba muslim shalat dan memohon sesuatu kebaikan kepada Allah melainkan akan diberikan padanya, beliau berisyarat dengan tangannya akan sedikitnya waktu tersebut”. (Shahih Al-Bukhari, kitab Da’awaat 7/166. Shahih Muslim, kitab Jumuah 3/5-6)

Waktu yang sesaat itu tidak boleh diketahui secara tepat dan masing-masing riwayat menyebutkan waktu tersebut secara berbeza-beza, sebagaimana yang telah disebutkan oleh Ibnu Hajar di dalam Fathul Bari 11/203.

Dan kemungkinan besar waktu tersebut berada ketika saat imam atau khatib naik ke mimbar sehingga selesai shalat Jum’at atau sehingga selesai waktu shalat ashar bagi orang yang menunggu shalat maghrib.

(6). Ketika Waktu Bangun Tidur Pada Malam Hari Bagi Orang Yang Sebelum Tidur Dalam Keadaan Suci dan Berdzikir Kepada Allah

Dari ‘Amr bin ‘Anbasah Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam bersabda.

“Ertinya :Tidaklah seorang hamba tidur dalam keadaan suci lalu terbangun pada malam hari kemudian memohon sesuatu tentang urusan dunia atau akhirat melainkan Allah akan mengabulkannya” . (Sunan Ibnu Majah, bab Doa 2/352 No. 3924. Dishahihkan oleh Al-Mundziri 1/371 No. 595)

Terbangun tanpa sengaja pada malam hari.(An-Nihayah fi Gharibil Hadits 1/190)
Yang dimaksudkan dengan “ta’ara minal lail” terbangun dari tidur pada malam hari.

(7). Doa Di antara Adzan dan Iqamah

Dari Anas bin Malik Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa
sallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Doa tidak akan ditolak di antara adzan dan iqamah”. (Sunan Abu Daud, kitab Shalat 1/144 No. 521. Sunan At-Tirmidzi, bab Jamiud Da’waat 13/87. Sunan Al-Baihaqi, kitab Shalat 1/410. Dishahihkan oleh Al-Albani, kitab Tamamul Minnah hal. 139)

(8). Doa Ketika Waktu Sujud di Dalam Shalat

Dari Ibnu Abbas Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Adapun pada waktu sujud, maka bersungguh-sungguhl ah berdoa keraan saat itu sangat tepat untuk dikabulkan”. (Shahih Muslim, kitab Shalat bab Nahi An Qiratul Qur’an fi Ruku’ wa Sujud 2/48)

Yang dimaksudkan adalah sangat tepat dan layak untuk dikabulkan doa kamu.

(9). Ketika Saat Sedang Hujana

Dari Sahl bin a’ad Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahawasanya Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Dua doa yang tidak pernah ditolak ; doa ketika waktu adzan dan doa ketika waktu hujan”. (Mustadrak Hakim dan dishahihkan oleh Adz-Dzahabi 2/113-114. Dishahihkan oleh Al-Albani dalam Shahihul Jami’ No. 3078).

Imam An-Nawawi berkata bahawa penyebab doa pada waktu hujan tidak ditolak atau jarang ditolak ialah kerana pada saat itu sedang turun rahmat khususnya curahan hujan pertama di awal musim. (Fathul Qadir 3/340).

(10). Ketika Saat Ajal Tiba

Dari Ummu Salamah bahawa Rasulullah ‘alaihi wasallam mendatangi rumah Abu Salamah (pada hari wafatnya), dan beliau mendapati kedua mata Abu Salamah terbuka lalu beliau ‘alaihi wasallam memejamkannya kemudian bersabda.

“Ertinya : Sesungguhnya tatkala ruh dicabut, maka pandangan mata akan
mengikutinya’ . Semua keluarga histeria. Baginda ‘alaihi wasallam bersabda : ‘Janganlah kalian berdoa untuk diri kalian kecuali kebaikan, kerana para malaikat mengamini apa yang kamu ucapkan”. (Shahih Muslim, kitab Janaiz 3/38)

(11). Ketika Lailatul Qadar

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala berfirman.

“Ertinya : Malam kemuliaan itu lebih baik daripada seribu bulan. Pada malam itu turun malaikat-malaikat dan malaikat Jibril dengan izin Tuhannya untuk mengatur segala urusan. Malam itu penuh kesejahteraan sehingga terbit fajar”. (Al-Qadr : 3-5)

Imam As-Syaukani berkata bahawa kemuliaan Lailatul Qadar mengharuskan doa setiap orang pasti dikabulkan. (Tuhfatud Dzakirin hal. 56)

(12). Doa Ketika Hari Arafah

Dari ‘Amr bin Syu’aib Radhiyallahu ‘anhu dari bapaknya dari datuknya bahawasanya Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda.

“Ertinya : Sebaik-baik doa adalah pada hari Arafah”. (Sunan At-Tirmidzi, bab
Jamiud Da’waat 13/83. Dihasankan oleh Al-Albani dalam Ta’liq alal Misykat 2/797 No. 2598)


Di edit dan diterjemah oleh Abu Usamah

Tanda-tanda orang munafiq – Sahabat Hudzaifah r.a pernah berkata: “Orang-orang munafik sekarang lebih jahat (berbahaya) daripada orang munafik pada masa Rasulullah saw.”
Ditanyakan kepadanya: “Mengapa demikian?”
Hudzaifah menjawab: “Sesungguhnya pada masa Rasulullah saw mereka menyembunyikan kenifakannya, sedangkan sekarang mereka berani menampakkannya.” (Diriwayatkan oleh Al Farayabi tentang sifat an nifaq (51-51), dengan isnad shahih)

Pernyataan sahabat Hudzaifah r.a itu diucapkannya pada 14 abad yang lampau. Jika demikian, bagaimana dengan orang-orang munafik pada abad ini?

Orang-Orang Munafiq dalam Al Qur’an

Allah telah menyebut kata an nifaq dan kata jadiannya di dalam Al Qur’an sebanyak 37 kali dalam surat yang berbeda. Yaitu, di dalam surat ‘Ali Imran, Al Hasyr, At Taubah, Al Ahzab, Al Fath, Al Hadid, Al Anfal, Al Munafiqun, An Nisaa, Al Ankabut, dan At Tahrim.

Kata an nifaq serta bentuk-bentuk jadiannya diulang-ulang penyebutannya pada sebagian dari surat-surat tersebut. Hal ini menunjukkan betapa sangat berbahaya orang-orang munafiq itu terhadap mujtama’ (masyarakat) dan Ad Din (agama).

Macam-Macam Nifaq

Menurut Ahlussunnah Wal Jama’ah, sifat nifak itu terbagi menjadi dua macam:
Pertama: Nifaq I’tiqadi (nifak dalam bentuk keimanan)
Nifak jenis ini menyebabkan pelakunya keluar dari agama (millah). Pelaku nifaq i’tiqadi ini ditempatkan pada tingkatan yang paling bawah dari neraka. Orang seperti ini di dalam hatinya mendustakan kitab-kitab Allah dan para malaikat-Nya, atau mendustakan salah satu asas dari asas Ahlussunnah. Dalil nifaq i’tiqadi ini adalah firman Allah Subhananu wa Ta’ala : “Di antara manusia ada yang mengatakan: ‘Kami beriman kepada Allah dan hari kemudian,’ padahal mereka itu sesungguhnya bukan orang-orang yang beriman. Mereka hendak menipu Allah dan orang-orang yang beriman, padahal mereka hanya menipu diri mereka sendiri sedang mereka tidak sadar. Dalam hati mereka ada penyakit, lalu ditambah Allah penyakitnya; dan bagi mereka siksa yang pedih, disebabkan mereka berdusta.” (Al Baqarah 8-10)

Kedua: Nifaq ‘Amali (nifaq dalam bentuk perbuatan)

Dalil mengenai nifaq ‘amali ini adalah sabda Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam di dalam kitab Shahih Bukhari dan Shahih Muslim: “Ada tiga tanda orang munafiq: jika berkata ia dusta, jika berjanji ia ingkar, dan jika dipercaya ia khianat.”
Berikut ini ketiga puluh karakter orang-orang munafiq tersebut. Kemudian akan diperinci penjelasannya satu persatu:

Karakter Ke-1 : Dusta
Karakter Ke-2 : Khianat
Karakter Ke-3 : Fujur dalam Pertikaian
Karakter Ke-4 : Ingkar Janji
Karakter Ke-5 : Malas Beribadah
Karakter Ke-6 : Riya
Karakter Ke-7 : Sedikit Berdzikir
Karakter Ke-8 : Mempercepat Shalat
Karakter Ke-9 : Mencela Orang-Orang yang Taat dan Sholeh
Karakter Ke-10 : Memperolok Al Qur’an, As Sunnah, dan Rasulullah saw
Karakter Ke-11 : Bersumpah Palsu
Karakter Ke-12 : Enggan Berinfaq
Karakter Ke-13 : Tidak Memiliki Kepedulian terhadap Nasib Kaum Muslimin
Karakter Ke-14 : Suka Menyebakan Kabar Dusta
Karakter Ke-15 : Mengingkari Takdir
Karakter Ke-16 : Mencaci maki Kehormatan Orang-Orang Sholeh
Karakter Ke-17 : Sering Meninggalkan Shalat Berjamaah
Karakter Ke-18 : Membuat Kerusakan di Muka Bumi dengan Dalih Mengadakan Perbaikan
Karakter Ke-19 : Tidak Ada Kesesuaian antara Zhahir dengan Batin
Karakter Ke-20 : Takut Terhadap Kejadian Apa pun
Karakter Ke-21 : Berudzur dengan Dalih Dusta
Karakter Ke-22 : Menyuruh Kemungkaran dan Mencegah Kema’rufan
Karakter Ke-23 : Bakhil
Karakter Ke-24 : Lupa Kepada Allah SWT
Karakter Ke-25 : Mendustakan janji Allah dan Rasul-Nya
Karakter Ke-26 : Lebih Memperhatikan Zhahir, Mengabaikan Batin
Karakter Ke-27 : Sombong dalam Berbicara
Karakter Ke-28 : Tidak Memahami Ad Din
Karakter Ke-29 : Bersembunyi dari Manusia dan Menantang Allah dengan Dosa
Karakter Ke-30 : Senang dengan Musibah yang Menimpa Orang-Orang Beriman dan Dengki Terhadap Kebahagiaan Mereka

Karakter Ke-1 : Dusta

Imam Ibnu Taimiyyah berkata: “Al Kidzb (dusta) adalah salah satu rukun (elemen) dari kekufuran.” Selanjutnya beliau menuturkan bahwa jika Allah menyebut nifak dalam Al Qur’an, maka Dia menyebutkannya bersama dusta (al kidzb). Dan apabila Allah menyebut al kidzb, maka kata nifak disebutkan bersamanya. “Mereka hendak menipu Allah dan orang-orang yang beriman, padahal mereka hanya menipu dirinya sendiri sedang mereka tidak sadar. Dalam hati mereka ada penyakit, lalu ditambah Allah penyakitnya; dan bagi mereka siksa yang pedih, disebabkan mereka berdusta.”(QS. Al Baqarah : 9-10). ”Apabila orang-orang munafik datang kepadamu, mereka berkata: “Kami mengakui, bahwa sesungguhnya kamu benar-benar Rasul Allah.” Dan Allah mengetahui bahwa sesungguhnya kamu benar-benar Rasul-Nya; dan Allah mengetahui bahwa sesungguhnya orang-orang munafik itu benar-benar orang pendusta.” (QS. Al Munafiqun: 1)

Demikian juga apabila Allah menyebut tentang nifak, maka disebut pula qillatudz zikr (sedikit berdzikir kepada Allah). “Sesungguhnya orang-orang munafik itu menipu Allah, dan Allah akan membalas tipuan mereka. Dan apabila mereka berdiri untuk shalat mereka berdiri dengan malas. Mereka bermaksud riya (dengan shalat) di hadapan manusia. Dan tidaklah mereka menyebut Allah kecuali sedikit sekali “(QS. An Nisaa :142).

Sedangkan jika Allah meyebut tentang iman, disebut juga dzikrullah (mengingat Allah). ”Hai orang-orang beriman, janganlah hartamu dan anak-anakmu melalaikan kamu dari mengingat Allah. Barangsiapa yang berbuat demikian maka mereka itulah orang-orang yang merugi.” (QS. Al Munafiqun : 9).

Di dalam Kitab Shahih Bukhari dan Muslim, Rasulullah saw bersabda: “Tanda orang munafiq ada tida, salah satunya adalah jika berbicara dia dusta.” (Diriwayatkan oleh Imam Bukhari pada Kitab Al Iman, Bab ‘Alamah al Munafiq, juz 1/11 (Fathul Bahri), juga diriwayatkan oleh Imam Muslim pada Kitab Al Iman, Bab Bayan Khishaal Al Munafiq, juz II, Jilid I, hlm. 46 (Syarh An Nawai). Keduanya dari Abu Hurairah r.a)

Dusta merupakan karakter yang secara kongkret membuktikan bahwa pelakunya telah terjangkiti “virus” nifak. Demikian pula halnya orang yang berdusta dengan cara bergurau (main-main) –meski sebagian orang telah meremehkan hal ini. Hadits Rasulullah saw yang diriwayatkan Imam ahmad dalam kitab Musnad-nya dengan sanad jayid (baik), yang berbunyi:

“Celakalah bagi orang yang berbicara (bercerita) lalu berbohong agar orang-orang tertawa dengan cerita dustanya itu. Celaka baginya, celaka baginya, celaka baginya.”

Karakter Ke-2 : Khianat

Dalil yang mendasari karakter ini adalah sabda Rasulullah saw : “Dan apabila berjanji, dia berkhianat.” (Diriwayatkan oleh Imam Bukhari pada Kitab Al Iman, Bab ‘Alamah al Munafiq, juz 1/11 (Fathul Bahri), juga diriwayatkan oleh Imam Muslim pada Kitab Al Iman, Bab Bayan Khishaal Al Munafiq, juz II, Jilid I, hlm. 46 (Syarh An Nawai). Keduanya dari Abdullah bin amr bin Al ‘ash)

Barangsiapa bersumpah kepada kaum muslimin atau kepada waliyul ‘amr (penguasa) –ataupun mengikat perjanjian dengan orang kafir dalam suatu peperangan—kemudian ia mengkhianati perjanjian yang telah ia sepakati, maka ia terhadap dirinya sendiri sebagai orang munafik, seperti yang termuat dalam Shahih Muslim, ketika Rasulullah saw melantik seseorang menjadi pemimpin dari serombongan tentara. Pada saat itu beliau berpesan:

“….Apabila kamu telah mengepung penduduk suatu kampung, lalu mereka mengharapkan agar kamu membat janji dengan Allah dan Nabi-Nya untuk mereka, maka janganlah kamu mengabulkannya. Namun, ikatlah mereka dengan janjimu dan para sahabatmu. Sebab, seandainya kamu melanggar perjanjian tersebut, maka akan lebih ringan dibandingkan pelanggaran terhadap janji Allah dan Rasul-Nya. Dan jika kamu mengepung penduduk suatu perkampungan (perbentengan), lalu memintamu untuk menurunkan kepada mereka hukum Allah, maka janganlah kamu mengabulkannya. Namun, turunkanlah kepada mereka hukummu. Karena sesungguhnya engkau tidak tahu apakah mereka mampu menerapkan hukum Allah terhadap mereka atau tidak.”(Diriwayatkan oleh Imam Muslim dalam Kitab As Sair, Bab Ta’mirul ‘Umara ‘Alal Bu’uts, jilid IV, juz 12/3-38 (Syarh Nawawi).

Dengan demikian, barangsiapa memberikan janji kepada seseorang, atau kepada istrinya, anaknya, sahabatnya, atau kepada seseorang yang berwenang—kemudian dia mengkhianati janji tersebut tanpa ada sebab udzur syar’i—maka telah dianggap pada dirinya ada salah satu tanda kemunafikan.

Rasulullah bersabda: “Sesungguhnya pada hari kiamat Allah akan meletakkan pada pengkhianat sebuah bendera. Lalu dikatakan: ‘Ingatlah, inilah pengkhianatan si fulan’. (HR. Imam Muslim)

Termasuk ke dalam pengkhianatan adalah menyia-nyiakan amanat. Sebagaimana kita ketahui, di pundak setiap muslim bertumpuk berbagai macam amanat. Mulai dari amanat Allah dan Rasul-Nya, amanat dakwah, amanat rumah tangga, amanat profesi, sampai kepada amanat dari diri sendiri. Allah SWT berfirman, “Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu mengkhianati Allah dan Rasul (Muhammad) dan (juga) janganlah kamu mengkhianati amanat-amanat yang dipercayakan kepadamu, sedang kamu mengetahui.” (QS. Al Anfaal : 27).

Karakter Ke-3 : Fujur dalam Pertikaian

Sabda Rasulullah SAW dalam Kitab Shahih Bukhari dan Muslim:
“Dan apabila bertengkar (bertikai), dia lacur.” (Diriwayatkan oleh Imam Bukhari pada Kitab Al Iman, Bab ‘Alamah al Munafiq, juz 1/11 (Fathul Bahri), juga diriwayatkan oleh Imam Muslim pada Kitab Al Iman, Bab Bayan Khishaal Al Munafiq, juz II, Jilid I, hlm. 46 (Syarh An Nawai). Keduanya dari Abdullah bin amr bin Al ‘ash).

Para ulama berpendapat, barangsiapa bertikai dengan seorang muslim –saya sebutkan “seorang muslim”, sebab pertikaian dengan orang-orang kafir memiliki pembahasan tersendiri—kemudian dia berbuat lacur/fasik dalam pertengkarannya, maka Allah menyaksikan bahwa orang tersebut tergolong fajur (yang berbuat lacur) sekaligus munafik.

Sementara itu, mengenai pertengkaran dengan orang kafir, dalam hal ini ada hadits Nabi SAW yang menyebutkan: “Peperangan itu tipu muslihat.” ( Diriwayatkan oleh Abu Daud pada Kitab Al Adab, Bab Al “idah, nomor 4996. Dan Imam Al Baihaqi (10/198) dari jalan Ibrahim bin Thahan dengan isnad yang sama, dalam Kitab Asy Syahadat, Bab Man Wa’ada Ghairuhu. Hadits ini dha’if karena perawi yang majhul, yaitu Abdul Karim bin Abdullah bin Syaqiq. Lihat Kitab Sunan Abu daud, hadits nomor 4996).

Ali bin Abi Thalib sendiri dalam menghadapi musuh kafir menerapkan strategi dengan landasan hadits tersebut. Apabila orang-orang kafir telah berkhianat, lalu kita mempermainkan dan mengadakan tipu muslihat terhadap mereka, maka hal itu mempunyai landasan serta tidak termasuk khianat dan lacur. Hal ini tergolong dalam kategori strategi dan tipu muslihat terhadap musuh Islam.

Karakter Ke-4 : Ingkar Janji

Rasulullah SAW bersabda: “Tanda orang munafik ada tiga: jika berbicara dia dusta, jika berjanji dia ingkar, dan jika dipercaya (diberi amanat) dia berkhianat.” (HR. Bukhari-Muslim)

Inkgar janji adalah sifat yang dapat merusak dan memporak-porandakan seluruh rencana. Ingkar janjji juga merupakan perilaku buruk yang dapat melunturkan kepercayaan dan kesetiaan masyarakat kepada seseorang. Seperti kurang disiplin dalam menepati waktu. Bahkan, keterlambatan seakan-akan telah menjadi sesuatu yang biasa. Oleh sebab itu, barangsiapa berjanji kepadamu dengan menentukan tempat dan waktu kesepakatan, kemudian mengingkari janji tersebut tanpa ada udzur syar’i, maka di dalam jiwanya telah bercokol cabang kemunafikan.

Seorang ulama yang shaleh, jika berjanji kepada sauadara-saudaranya sesama muslim selalu mengatakan, “Insya Allah, antara saya dan kamu tidak ada mau’id (waktu perjanjian). Jika saya dapat, saya akan datang. Namun, jika tidak dapt, berarti saya udzur.” Hal demikian dilakukannya dengan tujuan agar pada dirinya tidak tertulis salah satu dari cabang-cabang kemunafikan.


Sumber : Kitab 30 Tanda-Tanda Orang Munafiq, A’aidl Abdullah al Qarni

False memory

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False Memories

False memories may be full-blown memories of events that were never experienced or (perhaps more commonly) memories that are distorted (i.e., the event one is remembering actually occurred, but it did not occur in the way that is being recalled). Even though memory can foster an illusion of reliving an experience, it is actually a reconstruction and hence subject to departures from objective facts. This entry focuses on false episodic memories, or inaccurate memories of episodes in one’s past, which can be distinguished from false semantic memories, which include inaccurate knowledge (e.g., erroneously believing that the capital of Russia is St. Petersburg).

For example, when conveying anecdotes in casual social interactions, people sometimes embellish them to make them more interesting, often spicing them with fresh details in subsequent retellings to assure the desired pungency. Although innocent in intent, such embellishments can actually alter the teller’s own memory of the event. Even though the raconteur might be fully aware of the fictional enhancements at the time, he or she may in time come to think of them as actual components of the original event (Tversky and Marsh, 2000).

We distinguish here between two broad classes of episodic false memories: those that arise from internal processes (e.g., the example regarding embellishments) and those that arise from external events (e.g., from hearing other peoples’ erroneous accounts of an event). In the former case, people’s own thoughts, associations, or inferences cause them to misremember the past, whereas in the latter case, the false memories arise from someone else’s overt suggestion or misleading statements.

False Memories Arising from Internal Processes

In everyday conversation, listeners often make inferences that stretch the meaning of the speaker’s explicit words. For example, if a colleague told you that his infant had “stayed awake all night,” you might infer that the baby had cried. Such inferences often insinuate themselves into memory. Indeed, when asked later, one might be likely to recall the statement as having been “the infant cried all night” (Brewer, 1977; Bransford and Franks, 1971).

The literature on the role of schemas (or general world knowledge) on memory also sheds light on the influence that inferences can have on memory. This work is rooted in studies by Bartlett (1932), who demonstrated that when English students were presented with an American Indian folktale that they found difficult to comprehend, the flaws in their memories of the folktale often betrayed British cultural influences.

More recent experimental investigations into internally generated false memories include studies in which people are given short lists of about fifteen related words to remember (e.g., bed, rest, awake, tired, dream). When given an immediate free recall test after such a list (and told to recall every word that is remembered in any order but without guessing), people often recall sleep, a related (but not presented) word (Roediger and McDermott, 1995). This approach, which allows the rapid implanting of numerous mini false memories, enables researchers to manipulate various independent and subject variables in order to observe their effects on false recall (and false recognition) probabilities (Roediger and McDermott, 2000). This work shows not only that people recall and recognize the nonpresented, related words but that they also claim to remember the precise moment of presentation of these (nonpresented) words. In addition, the forgetting function for the related, nonpresented words is less steep than the forgetting function for studied words.

Another recent line of research has investigated the role that imagination can play in distorting memory. The mere act of imagining an event can inflate the probability that a person will come to have a full-blown recollection of the (nonexistent) prior event. This phenomenon has been dubbed imagination inflation (Garry, Manning, and Loftus, 1996; Goff and Roediger, 1998).

Not only can imagining an event that did not previously occur create memories for that event, but also describing an event that did indeed occur can color memory for that event. For example, if expert wine tasters describe a wine they just sampled, it does not change their memory for the wine; if, however, intermediate-level wine tasters attempt to describe the wine just enjoyed, the descriptions skew their later memory of the wine (Melcher and Schooler, 1996). This interference from attempting to verbalize an experience that is not readily amenable to accurate verbal description has been termed “verbal overshadowing” by Jonathan Schooler.

False Memories Arising from External Factors

Some of the best-known false memory work can be considered adaptations of the classic studies of retroactive interference, in which a subsequent event can interfere with memory for a similar, prior event (McGeoch, 1932). In its more modern manifestation, subjects might be presented with a slide show or videotape depicting a car crash and later be exposed to misleading information about this event either through a narrative, suggestive questions, or both. In a classic study by Loftus and Palmer (1974), such a crash was followed by a questionnaire asking people a series of questions about the crash. The critical manipulation was a single verb in one of the questions: contacted, hit, bumped, collided, or smashed. That is, people were asked, “How fast were the cars going when they ___ into each other?” Speed estimates varied markedly as a function of the verb used; when the more dramatic verb smashed was invoked, the average estimated speed was forty-one miles per hour, whereas the verb contacted elicited an average estimate of only thirty-two miles per hour. Even more amazing was that the wording of this single question influenced peoples’ memories even a week later when they were asked, “Did you see any broken glass?” Subjects were more likely to erroneously recollect broken glass if they had encountered the verb smashed a week earlier (relative to the verb hit).

Work within this tradition is often referred to as the misleading-information paradigm or sometimes the eyewitness-memory paradigm. Similar findings with respect to the role of intervening suggestions on peoples’ memories have been demonstrated for police lineups among other domains. Elizabeth Loftus combined this procedure with the imagination-inflation procedures in a case study in which she created a full-blown memory of being lost in a shopping mall in a teenage boy (Chris) who was never actually lost in a mall (Loftus, 1993). Loftus prompted the false memory by having Chris’s brother suggest the incident to Chris, complete with specific details. Two weeks after the initial description of the nonevent, Chris was able to “recall” minute details from this incident, including the balding head and the kind of eyeglasses worn by the man who rescued him. Ira Hyman and his colleagues have performed systematic studies of this type and explored individual differences among people that influence the likelihood of such false memories (Hyman and Billings, 1998).

Processes That Give Rise to False Memories

Many theoretical perspectives have been applied to the study of false memories. We focus here primarily on the Source Monitoring Framework, which has been espoused by Marcia Johnson and her colleagues (Johnson, Hastroudi, and Lindsay, 1993; Johnson and Raye, 1981). Accurate memory requires disentangling recollection of events from speculations, inferences, and imaginings. Achieving the seemingly simple goal is easier in theory than in practice. Simply asking people to focus carefully on whether something was experienced or only imagined or thought and to be sure to recall only what overtly occurred (and not what they inferred or thought) is not sufficient to avoid false memories and may even exacerbate them in some situations (Hicks and Marsh, 2001). Telling people before an encoding phase that they might be misled and that they should encode the information carefully so as not to confuse their thoughts with the overt event may aid them somewhat but is by no means sufficient to eliminate later false memories. Some research has shown that, relative to young adults, old adults have more difficulties in monitoring the retrieval process in order to avoid false memories.

Practical Implications

The fallibility of memory has become a contentious subject not only in psychological theory, but also as a result of its practical implications in the legal system, where the reliability of eyewitness accounts has come increasingly into question. Several conclusions can be safely reached from this research, however. Perhaps the most important point is that a full-blown, vivid recollection of a prior event is not diagnostic of its prior occurrence; it is perfectly possible to vividly recollect an event that was only previously imagined or thought about. The stories we tell ourselves and others color our memory for the object of the story. In this vein, retrieval has been described as a double-edged sword: It helps us remember what occurred previously (the testing effect), but it also can distort memory. Simple instructions to try to avoid false memories are often insufficient to do so.

Finally, memory’s reconstructive nature might be considered a cognitive asset rather than a drawback. Most of our misguided recollections are fairly harmless, and many inferences about another’s conversational intent are probably correct—in the foregoing example, the baby probably was crying all night. Only in the high-stakes atmosphere of, say, the courtroom or the police lineup does it become critical to disentangle the wheat of accurate memory from the chaff of imagination, inference, conjecture, and embellishment.

See Also

Reconstructive Memory


Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. New York: Macmillan.

Bransford, J. D., and Franks, J. J. (1971). The abstraction of linguistic ideas. Cognitive Psychology 2, 331-350.

Brewer, W. F. (1977). Memory for the pragmatic implications of sentences. Memory & Cognition 5, 673-678.

Garry, M., Manning, C. G., and Loftus, E. F. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidences that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 3, 208-214.

Goff, L. M., and Roediger, H. L., III. (1998). Imagination inflation for action events: Repeated imaginings lead to illusory recollections. Memory & Cognition 26, 20-33.

Hicks, J. L., and Marsh, R. L. (2001). False recognition occurs more frequently during source identification than during oldnew recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 27, 375-383.

Hyman, I. E., and Billings, F. J. (1998). Individual differences and the creation of false childhood memories. Memory 6, 1-20.

Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., and Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin 114, 3-28.

Johnson, M. K., and Raye, C. L. (1981). Reality monitoring. Psychological Review 88, 67-85.

Loftus, E. F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist 48, 518-537.

Loftus, E. F., and Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13, 585-589.

McGeoch, J. A. (1932). Forgetting and the law of disuse. Psychological Review 39, 352-370.

Melcher, J. M., and Schooler, J. W. (1996). The misremembrance of wines past: Verbal and perceptual expertise differentially mediate verbal overshadowing of taste memory. Journal of Memory and Language 35, 231-245.

Roediger, H. L., and McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 21, 803-814.

—— (2000). Tricks of memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science 9, 123-127.

Tversky, B., and Marsh, E. (2000). Biased retellings of events yield biased memories. Cognitive Psychology 40, 1-38.